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11 Янв, 2023

Literacy rate in early 20th century Europe

In Germany, Great Britain, the Scandinavian countries and Estonia, more than 90% of the population can read and write.

In Russia, the share of literates was within 30% in most regions, except for the capital (St. Petersburg and its environs — more than 50% of literates). In general, in terms of literacy, Russia was closer to Spain and Italy.

The least literate were in some Transcaucasian regions of Russia, in the Balkans and in Portugal — in some places less than 10%

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Sweden wants to return to the civil service on conscription to strengthen the defense. The government will instruct the Swedish Emergency Management Agency to prepare a training program for citizens who do not want to serve in the army.


Germany will double the quota for attracting labor from the Western Balkans. Up to 50 thousand citizens of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro will be able to find a job and live in Germany every year.


Belgium will extend the operation of two nuclear power plant reactors, which were planned to be closed in 2025, by 10 years, Reuters reports. The country’s authorities and the French energy company Engie have entered into an agreement to extend the operation of the Doel 4 and Tihange 3 reactors.


British patients plan to be transferred to nursing homes to free up hospital beds. The National Health Service will receive a state subsidy of about 228 million euros for the temporary purchase of places in nursing homes and other such institutions.


The Hungarian authorities and 4iG have entered into an agreement to buy a subsidiary of the British telecom giant Vodafone, which is the second largest operator in the local communications market. The cost of the transaction is estimated at 1.66 billion euros. As a result, it is planned to create a market-leading national telecommunications company, Portfolio writes.


The court acquitted the ex-premier of the Czech Republic in the case of fraud with EU subsidies. The Prague Municipal Court dropped charges against Andrej Babiš in the case of the Stork’s Nest farm, which received EU subsidies after it passed to the politician’s family members.


The number of asylum applications in Austria has more than tripled. Now, an average of 300 people a week submit applications for its provision, while at the peak last year there were at least a thousand.


In Belgium, the Hair Recycle project was launched, in which human hair is processed into rugs that absorb oil and other dangerous substances. Hairdressers across the country collect clients’ strands and give them to be recycled.

Project co-founder Patrick Janssen explains that 1 kilogram of hair can absorb up to 8 liters of oil and hydrocarbons. Ready-made mats can be placed, for example, in the sewer so that harmful substances do not pollute the water


Nearly 200 Tesla owners gathered at the automaker’s showrooms and distribution centers in China over the weekend, demanding rebates and credits after the sudden price cut, claiming to have overpaid for previously purchased electric vehicles. The day before, on Friday, Tesla cut prices by 13-24%.


In 8 European countries, January 2023 was the warmest on record


At normal temperatures for the season, the filling of gas storage facilities in Germany will be 65% by the end of April, the association of operators of German underground gas and hydrogen storage facilities INES predicts.

This figure is significantly higher than in 2022. Then it was 26% at the end of March and 35% at the end of April. Now gas storage facilities are 91% full.


Microsoft has trained the VALL-E language model on 60,000 hours of English speech, and now the neural network can simulate any voice in just 3 seconds of listening. Artificial intelligence will be able to convey even the emotions and tone of the speaker.


Google Corporation announced that it is closing the Google Translate service in China due to a small number of users. Back in 2010, the American tech giant shut down its search engine due to pressure from the government. Google Maps and Gmail services have also been blocked by the Chinese government.


The Guinness Book of Records has announced that Elon Musk has broken the record for the largest loss of personal wealth in history ($200 billion)


Chinese scientists are working on turning mosquitoes into flying vaccines. Genetically modified insects bite animals and vaccinate them against the development of dangerous infections. For example, the Zika virus. It has been experimentally proven that after a bite, a strong and long-term immune response is formed in an animal. Thus, it is possible to spud those species that are difficult for zoologists to reach in wildlife, as well as endangered ones.


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