17 Mar, 2020

News digest for 03/16/2020

Representatives of the academic community, lawyers, political scientists, writers, journalists, and artists published two appeals against amendments to the Russian Constitution. Both statements state that the amendment law was prepared and reviewed in violation of the current Constitution and Russian laws. Separately, the amendment that resets Vladimir Putin’s presidential term is criticized. The letter was signed by several hundred people.

Aware of the historical significance of this moment, we call on all concerned citizens, political and public figures to make every possible effort to return the situation to legality and constitutional order.”

The letter is addressed “to our fellow citizens, deputies of all levels, politicians, public figures, and of course-to the judges of the constitutional court who took an oath on the text of the current Constitution»

The Kremlin commented on an open letter against amendments to the Constitution

The Kremlin has seen an open letter from cultural figures against amendments to the Constitution, but it is a question of the proportion of those who are for and against, which will show the vote, said on Monday, the press Secretary of the Russian President Dmitry Peskov.

“We saw this letter. There are different emails. There are different points of view. This is a question in the proportion of those who support and those who do not support. We will find out after the vote, ” he told reporters.

The constitutional court of Russia has recognized the amendments to the Constitution as legal

The request of the President of the Russian Federation to check the constitutionality of the law on amendments to the Basic law was considered by 14 judges of the constitutional court of the Russian Federation out of 19.

The constitutional court of Russia recognized that the law on the amendment to the Constitution corresponds to articles 1, 2 and 9 of the basic law of the country. This is stated in the opinion of the COP published on March 16. The conclusion of the constitutional court of the Russian Federation on verification of the law on amendments to the Constitution is final. It is not subject to appeal and takes effect immediately, the court said in its opinion

The constitutional court considers that the decision of 1998 on term limits for Yeltsin does not refute the zeroing amendment, but confirms its possibility

The possibility to hold the office of President for more than 2 terms can arise only with the support of the people — constitutional court

The American company introduced the first electric excavator.

It is equipped with a 90 kilowatt-per-hour lithium-ion battery. CASE Contruction Equipment reports that an electric backhoe loader can operate for up to eight hours a day without recharging.

In Croatia, the sale of houses for 11 rubles began

In the city of Legrad (Croatia), the sale of houses and land plots at the price of one Croatian Kuna (approximately 11 rubles or 0.15 dollars) has begun in order to increase the population. This is reported by bne IntelliNews with reference to Hrvatska radiotelevizija

The transaction can be concluded if the buyer is under 40 years of age. He must also stay in Legrad for 15 years. In return, local authorities subsidize the purchase of real estate in the amount of up to 35 thousand Croatian Kuna (381,1 thousand rubles) and compensate the cost of repairs in the amount of up to 25 thousand Croatian Kuna (272,2 thousand rubles).

The Uzbeks threatened a social explosion in Russia due to the closure of the borders

Due to the decision to close the borders taken by the Uzbek authorities, the situation with migrant workers may lead to a social explosion in Russia. This was stated by Usman Baratov, President of the Interregional Uzbek community “Vatandosh”.

Revealed the cost of the most expensive place for a car in Moscow

According to the results of 2019, the most expensive Parking space in an elite residential complex in Moscow was sold for 9.15 million rubles. This was reported to Stroygazeta in the analytical Department of the portal Urbanus, specifying that such a lot is located in the residential complex “Malaya Ordynka, 19” in Zamoskvorechye, and the minimum cost of the object in the complex is 4.55 million rubles.

The Russian foreign Ministry was asked to partially suspend the Convention on road traffic

Non-profit partnership “GLONASS”, created for the development of navigation and information activities, asked to suspend certain provisions of the Vienna Convention on road traffic, as they make it difficult to develop and implement the technology of unmanned road transport on the territory of Russia.

Gazprom suspended gas deliveries via the “Power of Siberia»

Gas supplies via the Power of Siberia gas pipeline to China have been suspended for two weeks, and the pipeline is undergoing preventive maintenance, Gazprom reports.

“The dates of the work have been agreed by Gazprom and the Chinese oil and gas company.— “B”) BY CNPC. According to the agreement previously reached by the parties, planned prevention of equipment and systems of the gas pipeline will be carried out twice a year: in spring and autumn, ” the report says (quoted by TASS).

The Ministry of natural resources requests 12 billion rubles for the purchase of garbage containers

The head of the Ministry of natural resources Dmitry Kobylkin asked the Ministry of Finance to allocate 12 billion rubles from the Federal budget for the purchase and installation of containers for separate and mixed collection of solid municipal waste in the regions, a representative of the Ministry of Finance told RBC.
The Ministry added that the Finance Ministry now also approves the rules of allocation of subsidies for the purchase of containers for separate waste collection at the expense of the environment levy for the year 2019 in the amount of 2.97 billion rubles. He said that more than half of regions of Russia stated the need to purchase containers for separate collection.

France fined Apple 1.1 billion euros

French authorities have fined American Apple 1.1 billion euros for violating the requirements of antitrust legislation by the company’s retail network. This is stated in a statement by the French antitrust authority.

Alekperov purchased shares of LUKOIL for 950 million rubles

On March 11, the head and largest shareholder of LUKOIL, Vagit Alekperov, purchased 200,000 ordinary shares of The company in the amount of 949.96 million rubles on the OTC market. Thus, Alekperov’s direct ownership share in LUKOIL increased from 3.081% to 3.11%.

The volume of new supply in new buildings in Moscow has almost halved over the year

In an effort to solve the problem of falling demand for primary housing, Moscow developers are trying to limit the volume of supply. In February, they brought to the market almost half as many new projects as a year ago. But they are not yet able to cope with the fall in the market. Despite the increase in prices, developers ‘ revenue fell by almost 20%. In March, they may be supported by a rush for housing due to the fall of the ruble, but in the future, demand will again decrease, experts warn.

The Central Bank of Japan kept the current interest rate

The Bank of Japan decided to keep the interest rate at a negative level-minus 0.1%. This is reported by RIA Novosti with reference to the statement of the Japanese regulator

The Central Bank of South Korea decided to reduce the key rate

The rate has been lowered to a record low of 0.75%. This is how the regulator hopes to help the South Korean economy. The corresponding decision was made at an emergency meeting of the Central Bank.

 

For special labor services in the construction of the Crimean bridge: Vladimir Putin awarded Arkady Rotenberg the title Hero of Labor

 

Forest fires started in Siberia

Landscape fires started in the regions. Almost two-thirds of fires occur in the TRANS-Baikal region. The area of wildfires in the regions of Siberia has reached 30 thousand hectares, according to data from the map of space monitoring of fires on March 16.

In Zabaikalja region, the fire covered about 17.8 thousand hectares, in Buryatia — 7.5 thousand ha In the Irkutsk region and Krasnoyarsk region — approximately 2.4 to 3.7 thousand ha In Kemerovo region, the area of fires is about 1.2 thousand hectares.

What does Microsoft earn?

Windows, the operating system that runs on most computers in the world, is only the third largest source of corporate revenue. The first is Office, and the second is Microsoft Azure (servers and cloud capacity). More than $ 10 billion is brought in by computer games, and even the Bing search engine (Yes, it exists!) earns $ 7 billion a year

Iran has commissioned a 1 million barrel oil reservoir

According to the Executive Director of the project, Ibrahim Alipour, the capacity of the Falat Gare oil company’s tank parks increased by 1 million barrels after the commissioning of tank number 2.

Experts have warned of an unprecedented excess of oil production over demand

Bloomberg notes that the main reason for such a sharp excess of production over demand is the decline in oil consumption, and prices are pushed down by the decisions of the Saudi authorities to increase production and Russia’s statements about the possibility of increasing it by 300-500 thousand barrels per day.

The Kremlin considers the situation on the oil market predictable

The Kremlin considers the situation on the oil market predictable and is monitoring trends, Russian presidential spokesman Dmitry Peskov told reporters.

“As for the energy market, the situation there is predictable. We carefully monitor trends in this area,” he said.

ExxonMobil and Petronas to sell stake in the Chad — Cameroon oil pipeline

The American company ExxonMobil and the Malaysian company Petronas wanted to sell their assets in the operation of the Chad — Cameroon oil pipeline, on March 14, Agence de Presse Africaine reported, citing its sources. ExxonMobil owns 40% of the pipeline, while Petronas owns 35%.

Russia lowers oil export duties from April 1

The export duty on oil in Russia will be reduced from April 1, 2020, according to the calculations of the Ministry of Finance of Russia, by $14.9 and will amount to $52 per ton, according to the Ministry’s materials. Currently, the export duty on oil is $66.9 per ton.

Russian oil companies have promised not to raise prices at gas stations above inflation

The management of oil companies at a meeting on Thursday in the Ministry of energy promised not to raise prices at gas stations above inflation, Russian energy Minister Alexander Novak said. According to him, oil companies are ready to fulfill all their obligations – to supply fuel in full at stable prices.

The Dead sea scrolls from the Museum of the Bible in Washington turned out to be a fake

More than a dozen fragments of the famous Dead sea scrolls, which were stored in the Museum of the Bible in the us capital of Washington, turned out to be fake. This statement was made by a group of independent researchers.

Putin said that Russia has fully compensated for losses from sanctions

Vladimir Putin is confident that Russia was able to compensate for losses from Western sanctions and it “does not care” about restrictive measures. Western pressure, the President believes, has benefited the Russian economy and allowed it to ” turn on the brain.” Putin stressed that under the conditions of sanctions, Russia has restored agriculture, as well as established exports.

“I don’t care about them, about these sanctions,” Putin said in an interview with TASS. – No one could have imagined that we would export $25 billion last year. This year, in my opinion, there will be $24 billion. We sell only $15 billion worth of weapons. no one could have imagined that we would be such large exporters, ” the President stressed

Kadyrov called Crimea a center of international tourism

For six years, thanks to the help of the Federal center and Vladimir Putin, the Republic of Crimea has made a big step in development and has become a center of international tourism, Kadyrov believes

Sochi and Crimea’s resorts are not competitors in the fight for tourists

Today we can’t talk about competition, because Sochi has its own tourist, guests who will not go anywhere else, unique transport logistics, unique natural places: the sea, mountains, air. And the service sector in the city has been created at a very high level,” Sochi mayor Alexey Kopaygorodsky said in an interview with TASS.”

According to him, people from all over the country come to Sochi to rest, most of them return again. Thus, the tourist flow to the resort in 2019 amounted to 6.2 million people. He noted that the foreign tourist flow has been increasing in recent years. Currently, the share of foreigners is about 3.5%, of which the absolute majority are tourists from Israel, who are also attracted to the Sochi gambling zone.

Donald Glover posted a new album online

The untitled record is freely available on a specially created website DonaldGloverPresents.com The album contains 12 tracks, including the 2018 single “Feels Like Summer”, and two previously performed jams” Warlords “and”Algorithm”.

St. Petersburg’s Alexandrinsky theater will broadcast its performances online.

On March 17 and 18, the performance of Zhenya Berkovich based on the play “Sunny line”by Ivan Vyrypaev will be shown. The broadcast will take place in the official group of the theater in the social network “Vkontakte”. Dates for the next broadcasts will be announced later.

“We hope that people are able to exchange energy at a distance. We hope that this will help to raise your mood, give you a reason to think, get closer to each other or just distract yourself,” said Alexander Malich, General producer of The new stage of the theater.

Bavaro beach has returned to the list of the 25 most popular beaches in the world.

The Dominican beach is considered the longest in the Caribbean region (48 km) and is the most developed part of the resort area of Punta Cana. Bavaro has gained worldwide popularity due to the fine white sand and textbook-turquoise waters of the Atlantic ocean that washes it. It is worth noting that in addition to the global, Bavaro is also included in The selection of exclusively Caribbean tripadvisor rating, which includes three Dominican beaches at once.

Alvin gray will release a track on poems by Joseph Brodsky

Russian pop singer Alvin gray (Radik Yulyakshin) spoke about his new song “Don’t leave the room”. The composition will touch on acute social themes. It contains the call “merge with the Wallpaper, barricade yourself from space, Eros, race, virus”, informs Newsnn.ru.

Technical inspection conditions are changing in Russia

According to the Kommersant portal, the new rules provide for the control of technical inspection stations of the RSA (Russian Union of motor insurers). Specialists will go to check the work of operators. If the decision to terminate accreditation is made by the RSA, it can be appealed.

This project will become part of the new law, which will become effective on June 8, 2020. The RSA will check that the requirements are met, that the car is entered in the database, and so on. the Reason for departure will be “information about violation of requirements”, which will be received from local authorities, mass media, citizens and legal entities.

Published a teaser for the horror series “50 States of fear”

The first teaser and footage of the horror series “50 States of fear”appeared on the network. The series is based on urban legends from various US States, ranging from Colorado to Washington.

 

 

Krasnogorsk sports film festival will be held at the end of may

The Krasnogorsky sports film festival accepts applications for participation until April 20, the press service of the Ministry of culture of the Moscow region reports. The final events of the festival will be held from 21 to 26 may in Moscow and the Moscow region.

“This year, all categories of sports – themed films, including TV series, are accepted for the competition,” the report says.

The band OneRepublic presented a new video

American pop-rock band OneRepublic has presented a new video for the song Didn’t I. the Video is published on the YouTube channel of the band the Track is included in the album called Human

The Silver age Museum has opened an exhibition dedicated to Fazil Iskander

Visitors can see photos, first editions of his books, letters (including from readers), documents, illustrations, posters of theatrical productions based on his works, a table and personal belongings of the “Russian writer of Abkhazian origin”, as he called himself. The exhibition “Fazil Iskander” Man and his surroundings ” will run in the Museum of the Silver age, a branch of the Museum of the history of Russian literature named after dal, until April 14.

«Yandex.Money ” launched money transfers via Telegram

Russians are increasingly sending money transfers to each other using smartphones every year. now this feature is also available to users of the popular telegram messenger. Online payment service ” Yandex.Money” was the first in Russia to launch money transfers via Telegram.

Nokia’s 43-inch TV was priced at $ 418

The first Nokia smart TV was released as a result of a license agreement between Flipkart and Nokia. It features a 55-inch 4K screen and a JBL speaker system for $ 566. Now, Flipkart has announced the upcoming release of a more affordable 43-inch model.

Full-screen ads are now available in Windows 10. You can disable it for now

Windows 10 began displaying ads on the entire screen, on top of other apps. In them, Microsoft encourages you to use its various products. You can disable this ad for now, but Microsoft has experience implementing banners in its OS that you can’t get rid of

Russian retail chains create food stocks

Russian retail chains have begun to pre-stock products against the backdrop of a new type of coronavirus pandemic, the Russian Ministry of industry and trade said.

Named regions with the highest unemployment rate

The leaders of the rating were Moscow (1.5%), Saint Petersburg (1.5%), Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district (1.8%), Khanty-Mansi Autonomous district (2.3%) and Moscow region (2.6%). In 38 Russian regions, the unemployment rate is lower than the national average. In November 2019-January 2020, the unemployment rate was 4.6%

In eight regions, the unemployment rate exceeds 10%. These include Ingushetia (26.3%), North Ossetia (13.6%), Chechnya (13.5%), Dagestan (13.5%), the Republic of Altai (12.9%), Tuva (11.8%), Karachay-Cherkessia (11.4%) and Kabardino-Balkaria (11.2%).

Collectors named the regions of Russia with the highest loan arrears

In 2019, the Tyumen region ranked first among Russian regions in terms of the maximum amount of overdue loans per debtor. The average amount of non-payment on the loan here is 200 thousand rubles. In the second and third places of the rating are Moscow and Saint Petersburg with arrears of 189 thousand and 180 thousand rubles, respectively.

The mortgage in Russia has proposed to tighten

Russian banks will be required to take into account the size of the initial payment for mortgage lending — along with the indicator of the debt load (PD) of citizens. This is reported by RIA Novosti with reference to the draft of the relevant document of the Central Bank.

Subscribers will pay extra for free access to the sites

Mobile operators have warned of the inevitability of an increase in communication tariffs if the state does not compensate them for free access to socially important sites for subscribers. Compensation may be in the form of tax incentives that will help subsidize special tariffs that include unlimited social Internet, the companies believe. Taking into account the loss of operators due to the depreciation of the ruble, communications in 2020 may rise in price by 20%, experts believe.

American providers have provided free Internet for the duration of the pandemic

American provider Comcast has provided 60 days of free public Wi-Fi for everyone. The promotion does not apply to home access points (which, by the way, would be more logical). In public places and businesses, free access will be available.

Other providers have also joined the promotion. One of them offers free Internet to students. And T-Mobile, for example, promised unlimited access to the network for smartphone owners

Saudi Aramco’s net profit decreased by $22.9 billion in 2019

Saudi Aramco, the state oil company of Saudi Arabia, on Sunday reported a decrease in net profit in 2019 by $22.9 billion. according to a report from Saudi Aramco, net profit last year was $88.2 billion compared to $111.1 billion in 2018.

In Japan, they told about plans to create hypersonic weapons

The defense News publication, based on the data of the roadmap of the Japanese Agency for procurement technology and logistics, told about the plans Of the country of the rising sun in the current decade to create two types of hypersonic combat systems.

Haftar’s army announced the death of Turkish soldiers in a strike in Libya

The Libyan national army, under the command of Caliph Haftar, said it had carried out strikes on military installations at the Mitiga airfield in Tripoli in recent days. According to LNA representative Ahmad al-Mismari, these objects belonged to the Turkish armed forces and were destroyed, in particular, radars and air defense systems.

Turkey resumed attacks in Idlib despite agreements with Russia

Turkish artillery struck Syrian army positions in Idlib province in defiance of agreements reached with Russia. This was reported on the eve of the Arab edition “Sky News Arabia»

In Chita, a military helicopter fired at a residential building

In Chita, a military helicopter fired from an air gun outside the airfield. As a result, a 23-mm shell hit the balcony of a residential building, no one was injured. The incident occurred on Saturday at the Cheryomushki airfield

More than 2.5 million illegal cigarettes were found in the garage of a resident of Abakan

According to the press service of the city’s Ministry of internal Affairs, the man was going to sell tobacco products on the territory of Khakassia. At the same time, some cigarette packages had forged excise stamps, while others did not have them at all. A batch of goods worth more than 11 million rubles was seized and sent for examination.

Facebook closes msqrd augmented reality app

Facebook has announced the closure of the MSQRD app, which allows users to take selfies with augmented reality effects. The AR app will be removed from the Play Store and App Store digital content stores on April 13. The MSQRD app was purchased by Facebook at the peak of its popularity in 2016.

Huawei Music streaming service enters the European market

Launching its own music service in the European region makes Huawei even more independent from third-party developers. In addition, the company’s own service allows it to offer music streaming services, despite US sanctions.

Information about users leaked to Google from the sites of Japanese government agencies

At least 12 Japanese government agencies used Google software that sent information about the Internet activity of visitors to government websites to the servers of an American company without the knowledge of Japanese officials

Scientists have created smart material

Scientists from the University of southern California have created a smart material that can control sound waves in various ways — to extinguish or improve them.

NASA has postponed construction of the Gateway lunar manned station

NASA has abandoned plans to build a near-lunar manned station Gateway for the landing of astronauts on the moon in 2024, plans to build it at a later date, said the American specialized website spacenews.com

NASA astronauts began growing human tissue

NASA astronauts have begun growing human cells on Board the International space station. The experiment should show how the development of human tissue is affected by reduced gravity, reports The Independent.

American scientists have discovered the secret of the origin of matter in the Universe

It turned out that everything is due to the process of axiogenesis, during which hypothetical axion particles are formed – these are hypothetical particles that weigh a billion times less than a proton, and rarely interact with ordinary matter. Therefore, the particle could not be detected earlier, according to the TV channel “360”.

If we assume that the axion particles produced their own energy, which turned into particles of ordinary matter, then a cascade effect could occur. The rotation of the axions created a new substance that slightly exceeded the amount of antimatter. All matter in the cosmos was formed in this way.

According to scientist Raymond Ko of the University of Michigan, axion provides an explanation for three problems: dark matter, the asymmetry of matter and antimatter, and the problem of CP-symmetry of the strong interaction.

For the first time, an exoplanet was discovered outside the plane of the galaxy’s disk

Astronomers named it LHS 1815b because it orbits the star LHS 1815. The planet is very similar in size to Earth, but its mass is about 8.7 times that of earth. This is a very rare find. Until recently, it was believed that planets could not be formed by those stars that are located outside the galactic disk.

Astronomers are preparing a mission to study the interstellar object “Moimoi»

Scientists from the interstellar research Initiative are going to start preparing for a more detailed study of the object. This was told to Wired by Adam Hibberd, one of the representatives of the “Initiative”. According to him, the mission is at least possible, although scientists are aware that they may face serious problems during its implementation.

The umuamua is leaving the Solar system right now, moving away from us every year at a distance roughly equal to the distance from Earth to Jupiter. It is supposed to start in 3030, so you will have to fly to the “cigar” at a great speed to make it all in time. In addition, during the ten years of preparation for the implementation of the mission, which is proposed to give the name “Lyra”, another suitable interstellar object may appear in our system, after which the sense of chasing “Umuamuma” will disappear by itself.

Scientists have calculated the size of a neutron star

Employees of the Institute of gravitational physics were involved in the calculations. Max Planck and the albert Einstein Institute. Badri Krishnan, who led the research team, noted that an ordinary neutron star is 1.4 times heavier than the Sun, while its radius does not exceed 11 kilometers. The largest figures that were calculated by scientists are 11.9 kilometers.

The formation of neutron stars occurs when a massive star is at the stage of its energy depletion. The core of such a star is destroyed and protons and electrons are converted into neutrons.

Haval will build an engine manufacturing plant in Russia

The Chinese company Haval and the Tula design Institute signed a contract for the design of a plant for the production of engines. Thus, the great Wall subsidiary brand plans to increase the localization of all cars produced in Russia.

A new automobile document will appear in Russia

The new GOST comes into force on March 31 of this year. The new standard will involve the issuance by the manufacturers of “energy efficiency label”. This document will be part of the accompanying documents such as: PTS, service book and operating manual

According to the new GOST, each car will have an energy efficiency class marked from A to G, as well as three subclasses: A++, A+ and B+. The document will reflect consumption indicators depending on the type of fuel per 100 kilometers of travel. The amount of carbon dioxide emissions will also be indicated. For owners of electric cars, the amount of electricity consumed and the power reserve on a single charge will be reflected.

The press service of the Ministry of industry and trade reports that automakers will be able to issue “energy efficiency labels” on a voluntary basis, while this innovation will not affect the cost of cars

NLMK group has launched a new portal for startups

NLMK group, an international metallurgical company, has opened a new online platform for attracting partners to jointly implement innovative projects-NLMK.lab.

ABB has developed a wall-mounted charging station for electric vehicles

ABB introduces the new Terra AC wall-mounted charging station. The new Terra AC wall mounted charging station is available in various versions with a capacity of up to 22 kW and is compatible with the electrical systems of homes and buildings around the world

A new material was created to replace human tissue

Swedish researchers have created a new elastic material with a unique set of properties that could act as a replacement for human tissue. The authors described their development on the pages of ACS Nano magazine.

Material for protecting buildings in the Arctic

Scientists in St. Petersburg have developed a carbon-polymer composite heat-protective material based on non-woven fabrics that can withstand low temperatures without weighing down the structure. This material will protect buildings, structures and people themselves from the effects of low temperatures in Arctic conditions, as well as ensure the effective operation of equipment.

It differs from existing analogues in that it consists of 95% carbon, so it is non-toxic and has low thermal conductivity due to its porous structure. At the same time, the material is resistant to UV radiation and does not form condensate inside it. At the moment scientists have already created prototypes of this new material

Found a way to start vascular regeneration

The body’s response to inflammation, which helps fight many types of infections, can inhibit cell regeneration in blood vessels, said American scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago. Their experiments showed that the cgas enzyme plays an important role in this process. It turned out that it blocks the ability of cells to recover. Removing cGAS shifts the priorities of cells towards recovery and regeneration, the authors stressed. The discovery has great potential for managing regeneration processes and controlling inflammation

A physicist has discovered the secret of the expansion of the Universe

Professor of the University of Geneva (UNIGE) Lucas Lombreizer put forward a hypothesis explaining the speed of expansion of the Universe, the portal reports Phys.org. Lombreizer suggested that the universe is not uniform, as previously thought, and the matter inside the galaxy is distributed differently than outside it. The physicist believes that this makes it difficult to calculate variations in the average density of matter in volumes a thousand times the size of a galaxy.

The calculations can become reliable if we imagine that the Earth, our Galaxy and thousands of galaxies closest to us are moving in a “bubble” where the density of matter is much lower than the known density of the Universe, the physicist suggested.

According to his hypothesis, the diameter of the “bubble” is 250 million light years, and this is enough to accommodate a galaxy that would serve as a reference point for measuring distances. Then the density of matter inside the “bubble” will be half less than in the rest of the Universe.