The us state budget deficit has reached $1 trillion.
From October to August 2019, it increased by 19% compared to the same period last year. The last time the us budget deficit reached a trillion dollars seven years ago-in 2012. The U.S. Federal budget Committee estimates that the deficit could reach $2 trillion by 2028. This could be a record in the history of the United States. There are several reasons.
First, in 2017, the us President reduced taxes by a total of $1.5 trillion. This reduced the flow of money into the state budget.
Second, interest on government bonds has increased in the US. The larger the budget deficit in the country, the greater the public debt. In the first quarter of 2019, U.S. debt totaled nearly $70 trillion.
Alexander Beglov’s agitators didn’t receive the promised salary
Several dozen agitators for the candidate for Governor of St. Petersburg Alexander Beglov did not receive the promised salary for participation in the election campaign. Two of them told “Open media” that officially the relations with them didn’t make out, refused to sign any contracts with them, and as a result to them paid only a half of the due money. Many of the agitators for the acting Governor turned out to be minors (this is illegal).
Where students can practice
The trade Union of journalists and media workers published an appeal in its telegram channel asking to increase the number of places where students can practice. This letter says that students complain about the limited range of publications recommended by the University.
“In 2019, students were offered to work in the “Federal news Agency”, “Nevsky news”, “People’s news”,” Politics today”, ” — said in a statement signed by the co-Chairman of the Union Pavel Nikulin. All these publications are associated with the media business Eugene Prigogine. The media called him close to the President of the entrepreneur or ” chef Putin.”
The Director of the Graduate school of journalism at St. Petersburg state University denies that forces students to practice only in the media, which are considered controlled by “Putin’s cook” Eugene Prigogine.
“I assure you that this is some kind of complete misinformation, “Anatoly Puyu told Open media.
Music list for putting kulturnation students
The Ministry of culture has published a list of works of art on which students can pass cultural standards. Boris Grebenshchikov appeared in the lists of performers recommended for Junior classes, and for senior — ABBA, the Beatles, Elvis Presley, Pink Floyd and Nirvana.
More than 90% of the list — classical music: Mozart, Beethoven, Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, Scriabin, Rachmaninoff, Vivaldi and others. It also includes works by Vertinsky, Okudzhava, Vysotsky, Dunayevsky, war songs, “God save the king” and” Change, we are waiting for change ” by Victor Tsoi.
Voronezh aircraft plant to take 4 billion loan from Novikombank
On September 9, the decision of the Board of Directors of the Voronezh joint-stock aircraft company was published. It involves the approval of the transaction for a loan in the so-called Novikombank. The total amount of the loan is 4 billion rubles. It is taken for a period until December 29, 2023 at 9% per annum. That is, the interest for the period of the credit line in monetary terms will amount to 1.6 billion rubles. Novikombank is connected with Anatoly Serdyukov, who headed the head structure of VASO in may 2019
Chubais spoke about the recipe for growth of the Russian economy.
The head of “RUSNANO” Anatoly Chubais talked about the management of the economy. He compared the process to driving a car. The corresponding statement was made by the statesman at the Moscow financial forum.
“Something simple – there are two pedals. One is called gas, the other brake. As we understand, the gas pedal is the economy of the first Deputy Prime Minister, the brake pedal is the law enforcement system. Both are essential, essential controls for any complex system. I would say this: today we managed to press both pedals so that the bones crack ” – said the statesman. The result is 1.1-1.2% growth. If you call a spade a spade – there is no growth. Pressed both pedals. So we won’t go”, – he told, having noted that, “certainly, it is necessary to do something with a pedal which is called law enforcement system”.
In the coming 2020 in Russia for the first time there will be private prisons.
From January 2020, commercial organizations will be able to use the labor of prisoners sentenced to forced labor. This law was pushed by the Federal penitentiary service of the Russian Federation. It is reported by Rambler.
And today it is one of the best in Europe
A parade in Moscow had never, – said the mayor Sergei Sobyanin, inspecting holiday calculations emergency city services. – Today people who every day provide a cosiness, comfort and safety of citizens take part in it. I am sure that Muscovites will appreciate the samples of our municipal equipment. After all, in recent years, this fleet has been updated by 60 percent. And today it is one of the best in Europe.
Motorists and guests of the capital, veterans and children will suffer from blocking of streets. The normal life of the city center will be paralyzed. A peaceful Sabbath rest for Muscovites.
Paris transport workers staged a strike
Or rather-transport workers who staged a strike and thus blocked the work of 10 of the 16 branches of the metro. In the city actually there was a transport collapse. The reason this time is Macron’s pension reform bill, which could cut pension contributions and change the conditions for early retirement.
For the sake of strengthening Russia, presidential power and Imperial power in the future
The blessing of sharemarket Blaise (Peregontseva), sharemarket Elijah (Nozdrin), Archimandrite German (Chesnokov) the Metropolitan Krutitsa and Kolomna Yuvenaly altar and singing from the churches in Moscow, flew over the Moscow region told news Agency “TODAY»
“We prayed for Russia and the strengthening of Presidential power and the future of Imperial power, to avoid confusion and discord at Home, who are now trying to organize, bringing a large number of demonstrators on the streets of the capital and conducting additional anti-Russian activities, with the aim of destabilizing Russia and the Government,” said the altar boy.
The us Treasury does not exclude the issue of 100-year bonds
The us Treasury Department does not rule out the possibility of issuing 100-year bonds if 50-year treasuries are in demand, said us Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin. The issue of bonds maturing in 50 years is now in “serious” study, he said.
“If there is sufficient demand, we will issue 50-year bonds. (And if they are in demand) we will consider (the issue of 100-year bonds)”
Donald trump extends trade sanctions against Cuba
US President Donald trump has extended trade sanctions against Cuba until September 14, 2020. “I have decided that extending these measures against Cuba for one year is in the national interest of the United States,” the statement said.
The US first imposed restrictions on trade with Cuba back in 1960. Initially, the restrictions applied to sugar and cars, but soon came under the ban all goods except food and medicines. In 1962, President John F. Kennedy completely banned trade with Cuba
2020 Olympics medals made from recycled gadgets
In April 2017, the organizing Committee of the Olympics launched a campaign to collect electronic devices to collect the necessary metals for the production of medals. A total of 32 kilograms of gold, 3,500 kg of silver and 2,200 kg of bronze were reportedly recovered from the vast array of gadgets, including 6.21 million mobile phones.
Gold medals have more than six grams of gilding on top of silver, silver medals are made entirely of silver, and bronze medals use red brass, 95 percent copper and 5 percent zinc.
The US has the most expensive healthcare system in the world.
As our chart (based on OECD data) shows, health spending in the US per capita (including public and private spending) is higher than anywhere else in the world, and yet the country lags behind other countries in some aspects, such as life expectancy and health insurance.
Friendship tree dismantled for the Stele of military glory
Stele of military glory – a standard design, it is obliged to put at each settlement, received the status of the city of military glory. Petrozavodsk was awarded this title in 2015, but so far the authorities have not been able to find a suitable place to install the stele. The city authorities decided to dismantle the architectural object “tree of Friendship”for these purposes. Analysis of the monument local authorities estimated at 20 million rubles. The author of the object “tree of Friendship” – Petrozavodsk architect Nikolai Ovchinnikov-has been dead for 10 years. His son, Ivan Ovchinnikov, said the authorities ‘ actions vandalism.
The Friendship tree in the center of the Karelian capital was established in 1978 as a sign of strengthening peaceful ties between Petrozavodsk and five twin cities: German Neubrandenburg, American Duluth, French La Rochelle, Swedish umeå and Finnish Varkaus. In the mid-1980s, representatives of the USSR and Sweden built a small birch grove around the monument in protest against the nuclear race and in support of peace consolidation.
Pensions Russians can trim
The FIU told in which cases pension payments can come in smaller than usual sizes. About it writes “the Russian newspaper”. One of the main factors in reducing the pension can be moving to another city. As told in the Pension Fund, in this case, the regional coefficient may change, which is taken into account when calculating the amount. In addition, payments may be reduced due to unpaid rent or a fine. As told in the organization, the debt will be written off from the pension to full repayment.
The FIU can also recover an overpaid amount from the pension. The Department said that the overpayment may occur if the pensioner failed to timely inform about the circumstances affecting the receipt of payments. Deductions may not exceed 20 per cent of the established pension.
Owners of oyster farms in the Crimea said the Supervisory ” repression»
Crimean oyster and mussel breeding enterprises have not received a positive conclusion of the state environmental expertise and stated excessive Supervisory requirements. Farmers wonder why their business environmental risks equated to oil pipelines
Complaints against the actions of the subordinate Rosprirodnadzor were sent to the Minister of natural resources and ecology Dmitry Kobylkin by three unions — the black sea Association of mariculture enterprises, the southern Association of fish breeders and the Crimean aquaculture Association. Copies of their letters, dated September 11, are available to RBC.
Yandex.Navigator learned to warn about six types of cameras
Application ” Yandex.Navigator ” began to warn drivers about the six types of traffic cameras that are installed in Moscow. On September 12, reports TASS with reference to the press service of the company “Yandex”.
No changes to the Constitution on the special status of Donbass
Ukrainian foreign Minister Vadim Pristayko, who headed the Agency in August this year, said that Kiev will not make any changes to the Constitution on the special status of Donbass.
“In the Minsk agreements it is written that there will be a reform of the Ukrainian legislation, constitutional reform, which is based on decentralization. We do not make any changes to the Constitution, we continue our path of constitutional reform, which we are doing for Ukraine, and the basis of these changes is decentralization, which has been successful in Ukraine for many years,” explained Priestayko.
Where the highest and lowest inflation.
High inflation can damage the economy of any country and indicate the main problems in economic policy. Currently, Iran, Turkey and Nigeria are the three countries where high inflation puts a strain on citizens and businesses, with effects ranging from exorbitant food prices , rising rents and falling sales of unwanted items.
Super “super” super Superjet 100
The head of “Rostec” Sergey Chemezov in an interview with RBC, the publication of which is scheduled for Monday, did not rule out the rebranding of the aircraft “Superjet-100” after a series of problems, including the plane crash in Sheremetyevo.
“As for the rebranding-maybe it really should be done. Moreover, we can make our Russian name”, – said the head of” Rostec”, which recently included the United aircraft Corporation.
Responding to claims of airlines to planes, he emphasized that ” Superjet “has”children’s diseases, they are fulfilled and will pass over time”. Demand is needed for confident work, he stressed.
In Moscow began to sell micro-apartments
In one of the new housing projects launched on the Moscow real estate market, set a record for the compactness of the apartments offered to buyers: the area of studios in the house starts from 11.6 square meters. This is stated in the materials of the Agency “BEST-Novostroy” received by the editor of “Tape.ru.»
“Large-scale experiments with new formats with falling solvency of the population, rather, a utopia. But there are some interesting phenomena, they reflect the difficult economic situation in the country. For example, the format of micro-apartments is beginning to develop — -explains the Director of the Department of new buildings of INCOM-real Estate Andrey kroitor. “They are able to attract investors, young buyers, visitors from the regions and other clients with a minimum budget.”
The ROC called the salaries of priests
The salaries of the capital’s priests of the Russian Orthodox Church range from 20 to 40 thousand rubles a month, and in the regions-even less, said on Saturday in the program ” Church and peace “on the TV channel” Russia 24 ” Chairman of the Department for external Church relations of the Moscow Patriarchate Metropolitan Hilarion of Volokolamsk.
The unemployed have become more likely to take out a mortgage
In September 2019, the share of unemployed borrowers was 17%, the tape writes.ru with reference to data of Agency of real estate “loobman”. However, the same unemployed all work – as a rule, we are talking about freelancers: taxi drivers, representatives of creative professions.
Scientists: the human body continues to move after death
Scientists at the Australian centre for taphonomic experimental research (after) have proven that human bodies can move for a year after death. The researchers observed the body of the deceased person for 17 months. Time-lapse photography showed that the corpse is able to significantly change its position. The study was aimed at clarifying the General system for determining the exact time of death.
A new vulnerability in SIM cards allows you to monitor users
Cybersecurity experts have discovered a critical vulnerability that allows attackers to hack smartphones and spy on their owners.
Patriarch Kirill congratulated the newly elected heads of Russian regions
His Holiness Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and all Russia congratulated the heads of 14 Russian regions on their victory in the elections
Over the years of your work in the region, you have earned the trust of the country’s leadership and the respect of your fellow citizens, as evidenced by your victory in the last elections, the official website of the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church quotes the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.
The total value of currencies in world circulation.
1. Gold: 8.7 trillion. Doll. USA.
2. Us dollar: 1.7 trillion. Doll. USA.
3. Euro: 1.3 trillion. Doll. USA.
4. Silver: 1.1 trillion. Doll. USA.
Looking at it in a broader light, we see that the global supply of money is dominated by gold and the us dollar. And perhaps to the surprise of some people, the cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, has become one of the largest donors to the world’s money supply.
Oil production in Saudi Arabia fell by half after the attack drones
Yemeni Houthi rebels claimed responsibility for the attack. Saudi Aramco led to a reduction in oil production in the country by half, Bloom Bloomberg, citing a source
Social pensions of Russians will be indexed by 7% in 2020
In 2020, as a result, the Average pension will be about 15 thousand rubles, and the average size of old-age insurance pensions for unemployed pensioners will be 16.4 thousand rubles, the Deputy Prime Minister noted. In April 2019, social pensions in Russia were indexed by 2%.
The Head of Sberbank German Gref spoke against national projects
According to him, they will not give the expected result. As Gref noted, now the world is developing a different model of economic development than the one that was a decade ago.
“The old tools do not work. Technologies that can not be ignored, completely blew up all spheres: the sphere of management in the first place, the sphere of health, education, ” he added. Gref urged to direct the money provided in the budget for the implementation of national projects, “to re-invent, to create a new model in education, health care, public administration, law enforcement and the judicial system.” “For this money, we can definitely make these reforms,” Gref said.
The state Duma supported the benefits for large oil companies
At the September session of The state Duma, deputies voted for amendments that would allow large companies (such as Gazprom and Rosneft) not to pay export duties on oil produced at eight Siberian fields. The bill was adopted exclusively by the votes of United Russia.
The Finance Ministry called the amount of debt of foreign countries to Russia
The total debt of foreign countries to the Russian Federation is about $35 billion On Friday, September 13, said Deputy Finance Minister Sergei Storchak on the sidelines of the Moscow financial forum.
On service Netflix released six-part Thriller ” Spy»
Netflix released a six-part Thriller ” Spy ” with Sasha Baron Cohen — the story of the last years of the life of Eli Cohen, the famous Israeli intelligence officer of the mid-twentieth century. Having infiltrated the highest circles of power in Syria, he for several years supplied Israeli intelligence with valuable information.
Daily expenses of Russians increased
Everyday spending of Russians in August 2019 increased by 4.9% compared to July. Compared to August 2018, spending increased by 11%. These are the results of the study of the holding “ROMIR”, which is based on the data of the scan panel of households.
France will block the promotion of cryptocurrency Facebook Libra
France has warned that it will block the development of the planned European cryptocurrency Libra in Europe, as it threatens the” monetary sovereignty “of governments, reports September 12,” France-Presse ” at the opening of the forum of the Organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD) in Paris, Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire said that France can not allow the development of Libra on European soil
Preferential mortgage will cost the budget at least 5 billion rubles
The program of preferential mortgages at 2% in the far East, widely announced at the Eastern economic forum, will cost the Federal budget from 5 to 10 billion rubles in 2020. Deputy Finance Minister Alexei Moiseev said on the sidelines of the International banking forum
Gref urged Russians to prepare for a crisis over the price of oil
Speaking at a panel session of the Moscow financial forum, the head of Sberbank German Gref urged Russians to prepare for the crisis due to the commodity shock in the oil market. It is reported by Interfax.
According to Gref, because of such conditions, oil prices will fall, which will lead to a decrease in Russia’s revenue from oil sales. With all the ensuing consequences. According to Gref, Russia is not ready for such challenges.
Gazprom started selling gas to itself for the sake of statistics
In the first 6 months of 2019, gas supplies to Europe fell by 8.9 %. Already in August, this figure fell to 22%.
According to the Interfax news Agency, in mid-August Gazprom delivered about 1 million cubic meters of gas. However, none of the pipeline operators recorded the supply of fuel. It soon became known that the buyer of gas was a subsidiary of Gazprombank. It should be noted that Gazprom owns 35% of the company directly and 47% through the pension Fund “Gazfond»
It should be noted that the energy company is not the first time conducting such transactions. In late 2018, she sold the gas to her trader Gazprom Marketing & Trading.
In Britain, develop a boat that can swim under water
According to “Nplus1”, the British company SubSea Craft presented a project of a surface boat designed for rapid and covert penetration into enemy territory. The boat is capable of submerging and delivering combat swimmers by type of submarine.
China will release agricultural products from the US from raising duties
This Wednesday, Donald trump on his Twitter page announced America’s readiness to postpone the increase in duties from 25% to 30%, for two weeks, because of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the PRC. It should be noted that since September 1, additional tax duties on goods from China have been introduced.
“Smart” glasses Huawei EyeWear went on sale
Huawei sells laptops with Linux operating system because of U.S. sanctions
Recall that after the company suffered restrictive opportunities from the United States, Huawei was forced to return to the search for alternative OC for its products. It touched first of all Android.
Turkey received a second battery S-400
Turkey received all components of the second battery of Russian s-400 anti-aircraft missile systems. It is reported by the press service of the Ministry of defense of the Republic. Deliveries were made to Murted air base in Ankara on August 27.
Us destroyer without Chinese permission entered the waters of the Paracel Islands
In China, declared undisputed sovereign rights to the Islands in the South China sea and nearby waters Missile destroyer of the us army without the permission of the Chinese government entered the territorial waters of the Paracel Islands, reported the Chinese defense Ministry
The universe could be two billion years younger
Scientists from the German max Planck Institute announced the refined value of the Hubble constant. This number is one of the key in the study of the properties of the Universe, so the new value forced to revise many theories. The Hubble constant is the rate at which the universe expands.
The US imposed sanctions against North Korean hackers
The us Treasury has imposed sanctions against three hacker groups, which, according to him, are sponsored by the authorities of North Korea and carry out attacks on critical infrastructure around the world. Information about this is available on the official website of the us Department.
Heavy music makes drivers take more risks
It turned out that the heavier the composition, the faster the motorists go: eight kilometers per hour more than the usual pace. Thus such music forced to be reconstructed more often.
Greece will begin to give citizenship for investment
The Greek government intends to launch a program to grant citizenship to investors buying property in the country, it was reported by the Greek media. In order to obtain Greek citizenship, foreigners will need to invest at least €2 million in real estate in Greece.
Putin instructed the FSB to check the safety of lake Baikal
Russian President Vladimir Putin instructed the FSB, the interior Ministry and the Prosecutor General’s office to assess the work of officials associated with the protection of the ecology of lake Baikal. The instruction to give a legal assessment of the work of officials and employees of control and Supervisory bodies in the Baikal nature protection territory was published on the Kremlin website.
The Kremlin has responded to Gref’s proposal to reduce the number of police officers
The head of Sberbank German Gref, ex-Minister of economy, made a proposal to raise the salary of the police 3-4 times, but reduce the number of employees, according to “RIA Novosti”.
Gref has considerable experience working in the government, in expert organizations, and in the management of such a giant as Sberbank.he is involved in many processes in the economy and in innovation in our country. Therefore, of course, his point of view is important, it is taken into account. – Dmitry Peskov, Russian statesman
The USA provided Ukraine with equipment for broadcasting in Donbass
The US authorities provided Ukraine with equipment to organize television and radio broadcasting in Donbass. This was reported on Friday by the U.S. Embassy in Kiev.
Trump announced the elimination of the son of Osama bin Laden
Hamza bin Laden, the son of the leader of the group “al-Qaeda” (banned in Russia) Osama bin Laden, who was killed in 2011, was liquidated as a result of a us special operation. This is stated in a statement issued on Saturday by the press service of the White house by US President Donald trump.
Russian military satellite “Cosmos-2521” disappeared
Russian military satellite inspector “Space-2521” is no longer orbiting the earth since September 12 fell apart, according to the tracker N2YO.com. The recent identification of the SPACECRAFT (SC) took place on the night of 12 September, when the apogee of its orbit equal to 126 km and a perigee 113 kilometers.
The US defended Europe from Russia ” steel rain»
Ground forces (SV) of the Ministry of defense of the United States deployed in the area of Grafenwoehr (Germany) at least 16 launchers (PU) universal system М270А1, reports Stars and Stripes.
The publication writes that such a system, developed in the late 1970s, was used in early 1991 in the Gulf war, where for its effectiveness it received from Iraqi soldiers the nickname “steel rain”.
Director James Gunn called the composition of the new ” suicide Squad»
The list includes: American wrestler John Cena, he will receive the role of Peacemaker, David Dastmalchyan-man-in-polka Dots, Jai Courtney, known for the films “Divergent”and” Terminator: Genesis.” And Margot Robbie, and viola Davis, who already starred in the first part, Nathan Fillion, Yuel Kinnaman, Flula Borg, the secret of Waititi, Idris Elba, Jennifer Holland, Michael rooker, Peter Capaldi, Mayling Ng, Joaquin Cosio, Sean Gunn, Juan Diego Botto, Pete Davidson, storm Reijo, Steve AGI, Alice Braga, Daniel Melchior, Tinashe Kaysi, Julio Ruiz.
Published a teaser for the tenth season of ” the Walking dead»
The first episode of the new season of the film will be released on October 6 this year. The creators of the American post-apocalyptic series “the Walking dead” presented a teaser for the tenth season of the project. The 30-second video was posted on AMC’s Twitter feed.
Russia will allocate more than two billion for the shooting of foreign films
Previously, a rebate program was announced, which provides compensation for the costs of foreign producers who will make films about Russia. According to the head of the export direction of creative industries of the Russian export center Evgenia Danilchenko, the program will work this year, and at the first stage 70 million rubles will be allocated. The program is designed for several years. In 2019, 70 million rubles will be allocated, in 2020 – 700 million, and in 2021 – 1.5 billion.
Science fiction film “the Matrix-4” officially returns
“Matrix” Wachowski sisters returns to the screens: at the beginning of next year will begin shooting a new series of the legendary franchise about the world as a simulation of reality. Lana Wachowski is announced as the Director, and Keanu Reeves (Neo) and Kerry-Anne moss (Trinity) are announced as the lead actors.
Microsoft has patented a “liquid” hinge for flexible smartphones
The folding mechanism will be made as a double hinge. One movable part of the hinge will be responsible for holding the left side of the gadget, and the other for holding the right part. In addition, the “liquid” hinge will ensure uniform deformation of the display when opening or closing.
In Russia proposed to introduce certification of service stations
“We propose to introduce a multi-level self-regulatory system of certification of organizations engaged in maintenance of vehicles, depending on the degree of technical equipment of stations and qualification of employees”, – information told RIA “Novosti”, referring to representatives of the Association of car dealers road
In road note that shadow services are dangerous for traffic, due to the lack of proper equipment and equipment, as well as transparent taxation.
Apple has found a replacement for Face ID and Touch ID
It seems Apple has found a great way to replace the usual fingerprint and facial recognition through Face ID. This is evidenced by the newly registered patent. The document says the device can be unlocked by scanning the palm of your hand.
In Russia launched a test station for 5g communication networks
Specialists of SKOLKOVO Institute of science and technology launched the first base station as part of the creation of the 5g experimental zone. This was reported by the press service of the Russian venture company.
By the beginning of 2020, it is planned to deploy 150 thousand base stations of the new generation of 5g communication in China.
The first commercial 5g network began to deploy South Korea. At the moment, about 75 thousand base stations have been deployed in this country.
Google Chrome will introduce automatic bypass of state locks
Mozilla, a nonprofit organization, has begun testing a new encrypted DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) Protocol and intends to implement it in Firefox’s own web browser. The inclusion of such an option in Chrome and reported the American Corporation Google.
Google will launch two new services for drug addicts
The first tool will be a map service, through which people suffering from drug addiction will be able to find the nearest of the 33 thousand rehabilitation centers in the United States. The second service will allow them to quickly find places of sale of naloxone (a drug used as an antidote for opioid overdose).
Swiss scientists have created a new prosthesis at the junction of two Sciences
Swiss engineers have developed a new “mechanical arm” that combines neuroengineering and robotics. The development has now been successfully tested on three volunteers whose limbs have been amputated. In addition, the experiment was conducted on seven healthy participants
Black holes can hide ” pure dark energy»
A new study published in the Astrophysical journal shows that black holes may contain nuclei of pure dark energy that potentially contribute to the expansion of the Universe.